Translating the findings

FAS results have been used to inform the design and development of several interventions aimed to reduce risky behaviors and promote positive youth development. FAS has also been replicated in other countries, including China, Poland and South Africa. Studies and programs based on FAS findings include:

Youth Empowerment Solutions

FAS results regarding adult role models, mentors, civic engagement, and ethnic identity were translated into an after-school program and curriculum to enhance positive youth development and prevent problem behaviors. The program, Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES), was funded from 2004-2009 by CDC to develop the project, and then by NIH to test it in an randomized control trial from 2010-2015. YES has been implemented in several cities across the U.S. and internationally.

Findings from the YES process and outcomes evaluations have been published in several key journals. A complete list of YES publications is available on the YES website.

Visit YES Website

Fathers and Sons

FAS findings demonstrate that fathers play a vital role in adolescent development, whether or not they live with their children. The Fathers and Sons program was developed based on these findings. The Fathers and Sons curriculum strengthens the bonds between fathers and sons and promotes positive health behaviors. The program was developed in Flint, Michigan through a partnership with community based organizations, the local health department and the UM School of Public Health and was the core project for the CDC funded Prevention Research Center of Michigan from 1994-1998. Led by Dr. Cleopatra Caldwell, Fathers and Sons has is now being launched in Chicago.

Visit Fathers & Sons Website

Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

The study results have also been used in proposals showing need for other prevention projects including the Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The MI-YVPC  is one of six National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Centers are funded to research youth violence prevention approaches, collect and analyze surveillance data, and foster relationships with local community partners to help develop, implement, and evaluate promising prevention efforts. The Center is working with community groups, and engaging youth to improve properties in neighborhoods as an innovative approach to preventing youth violence. The Center's core project grew out of FAS findings that engaging community and particularly youth contributes to positive youth development.

Visit YVPC Website


International Studies

This study has also provided the basis (i.e., design, questionnaire, theoretical frame) for similar studies in Poland, South Africa, and China. The first two studies also include publications replicating some of the results from this study (listed below). The study in China formed the dissertation and publications of a recent doctoral graduate.

Pisarska, A., Eisman, A., Ostaszewski, K., & Zimmerman, M. (2016). Alcohol and Cigarette Use Among Warsaw Adolescents: Factors Associated With Risk and Resilience. Substance Use & Misuse, 51(10), 1283–1296.
Yin, X.-Q., Wang, L.-H., Zhang, G.-D., Liang, X.-B., Li, J., Zimmerman, M. A., & Wang, J.-L. (2017). The promotive effects of peer support and active coping on the relationship between bullying victimization and depression among chinese boarding students. Psychiatry Research, 256, 59–65.
Wang, J.-L., Zhang, D.-J., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Reslience Theory and its implications for Chinese adolescents. Psychological Reports.
Hsieh, H. F., Zimmerman, M. A., Xue, Y., Bauermeister, J. A., Caldwell, C. H., Wang, Z., & Hou, Y. (2014). Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 84(4), 364–376.
Hsieh, H.-F., Heinze, J. E., Aiyer, S. M., Stoddard, S. A., Wang, J.-L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2015). Cross-domain influences on youth risky driving behaviors: A developmental cascade analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 38, 11–21.
Choe, D. E., Zimmerman, M. A., & Devnarain, B. (2012). Youth violence in South Africa: exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents. Violence Vict, 27(2), 166–181.